Capital Gains Tax on Real Estate: Here’s What You Need To Know
Capital gains tax looks at the positive difference between an asset’s sale price and its original purchase price or cost basis.
This type of tax is highly relevant to real estate transactions as properties often appreciate over time, potentially leading to substantial gains when sold.
In real estate, capital gains tax applies to any profit from selling a property. This encompasses rental properties, investment properties and even vacant land, and you may need to pay capital gains on your primary residence, too.
The resulting tax bill can be significant given the high values involved in most real estate transactions.
Therefore, understanding how this tax works and applies to your situation is crucial, whether you’re a property investor or a homeowner planning to sell.
What are capital gains and losses?
Capital gains are categorized as either short-term or long-term, each with its respective tax rate:
- Short-term capital gains result from selling a property owned for a year or less. These gains are subject to ordinary income tax rates ranging from 10% to 37% based on the taxpayer’s income.
- Long-term capital gains, on the other hand, are profits from selling a property held for more than a year. These gains are taxed at a more favorable rate, typically 0%, 15%or 20%, depending on your tax bracket. The preferential rates make holding onto the property for at least a year a financially attractive option for many taxpayers.
The concept of cost basis is fundamental in the calculation of capital gains. It represents the original value of an asset for tax purposes, usually the purchase price.
In real estate, the cost basis can include the property’s purchase price, closing costs, seller debts and the cost of substantial home improvements. When you sell, the cost basis is subtracted from the sale price to determine your capital gain.
Finally, capital losses occur when a property is sold for less than its cost basis. While no one wants to sell at a loss, there is a silver lining: capital losses can be used to offset capital gains, potentially reducing your tax liability.
Specifically, you can use any amount of capital losses to negate capital gains in the same year. If your losses exceed your gains, you can apply up to $3,000, if you file as single or are married and filing jointly, or $1,500 if you are married and filing separately, of the remaining loss to offset other types of income and carry forward any remaining loss to future years.
Given these elements, managing capital gains and losses becomes a critical strategic consideration in real estate investment and tax planning.
How does the capital gains tax apply to real estate?
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) administers the tax laws in the United States, including those governing capital gains tax on real estate. They provide the guidelines and regulations that taxpayers must adhere to when calculating and reporting their tax liability.
Your tax bracket plays a significant role in determining your capital gains tax rate.
As mentioned, short-term capital gains are taxed as ordinary income. Consequently, your rate depends on your year’s taxable income and filing status — single, married filing jointly and head of household.
In contrast, long-term capital gains have fixed rates: 0%, 15%or 20%. However, high-income taxpayers may also be subject to an additional 3.8% net investment income tax.
Here is a rough breakdown of the critical differences in tax rates applied during various financial situations:
- For single filers, the long-term capital gains tax rate is 0% if taxable income is up to $44,625, 15% for taxable income between $44,626 and $492,300 and 20% for income over $492,300.
- For married couples filing jointly, the 0% rate applies to taxable income up to $89,250, 15% for income between $89,251 and $553,850 and 20% for income over $553,850.
- If you’re filing as head of household, the 0% rate applies to income up to $59,750, 15% for income between $59,751 and $523,050 and 20% for income over $523,050.
Reporting capital gains on your tax return is a crucial part of the process.
You’ll need Form 8949 and Schedule D of Form 1040 for real estate transactions. Form 8949 details each capital asset transaction, including the date of sale and purchase, purchase price, selling price and capital gain or loss.
You then summarize this information on Schedule D and integrate it with your broader tax return.
Is there a difference between capital gains tax for primary residence and investment property?
There’s a significant difference in how the IRS treats the sale of a primary residence compared to an investment property.
Thanks to the home sale gain exclusion, if you sell your primary residence, you can exclude up to $250,000 of the gain from your taxable income if you’re a single filer or $500,000 if you’re married filing jointly. To qualify, you need to have both owned and lived in the home as your primary residence for at least two of the last five years prior to the sale.
However, the full amount of the gain is generally taxable when it comes to investment and rental properties. But there are strategies to defer these taxes.
One such strategy is the “like-kind” or 1031 exchange. Named after Section 1031 of the tax code, it allows you to defer capital gains tax when you sell an investment property, provided you reinvest the proceeds in a similar property type within a specific period.
It’s a powerful tool for real estate investors who want to grow their portfolios while minimizing their immediate tax burden.
However, navigating the rules of a 1031 exchange can be complex, and mistakes can be costly.
For example, you need to identify the replacement property within 45 days of selling your previous property and close on your new property within 180 days. As such, many investors work with a tax expert or CPA to ensure they meet all the requirements.
How do depreciation, deductions and expenses factor into capital gains tax?
When dealing with rental properties, understanding the concept of depreciation is crucial. The IRS allows property owners to deduct the “wear and tear” of the property over its useful life. This depreciation deduction can offset rental income, potentially reducing your tax bill.
However, when you sell the property, you might face depreciation recapture. The IRS taxes the amount of depreciation you’ve claimed on the property. It’s taxed as ordinary income, up to 25%.
In addition to depreciation, property owners often have several tax deductions available. For instance, you can typically deduct property taxes, mortgage interest, insurance, maintenance costs and depreciation which can help reduce your taxable income and potentially lower your capital gains tax liability.
The capital gains exclusion for the sale of a primary residence is one of the most significant tax breaks available to homeowners.
However, if you don’t meet the criteria — if you haven’t lived in the home for at least two of the past five years, for example — you may still be able to claim a partial exclusion in some cases, like if you had to move for work or health reasons, if the co-owner passed away or if the home was destroyed due to a natural or man-made disaster.
Why should you seek professional guidance for navigating a capital gains tax?
Dealing with capital gains tax on real estate transactions can be complex, especially when considering factors like depreciation, like-kind exchanges and the capital gains tax exclusion.
Understanding these concepts and how they apply to your situation can be challenging.
This is where tax professionals such as Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) or tax attorneys can provide invaluable assistance. With their expertise in the tax code, they can provide tailored advice and strategies for minimizing your tax liability.
For instance, a real estate agent might be instrumental in helping you find a buyer for your home and guide you through the sale process. Still, it’s best to consult with a tax expert when it comes to understanding how the sale of your home impacts your taxes for the tax year.
This becomes especially important when dealing with special provisions like the like-kind exchange, which allows you to defer paying capital gains tax if you reinvest the proceeds of your property sale into a similar investment property.
A tax professional can advise on whether you qualify for this type of exchange and guide you through the process.
What do capital gains taxes mean for you?
Understanding the intricacies of capital gains tax is critical to making informed decisions in real estate transactions.
This knowledge can substantially impact your tax liability, from the difference between short-term capital gains tax and long-term rates to recognizing the tax implications of selling your principal residence versus an investment property.
Remember, your taxable gain isn’t simply the sale price of your home minus the purchase price — it’s the selling price minus the cost basis, which includes your purchase price plus improvements minus any depreciation taken.
Given the complexities of federal tax law and the potential for changes in the tax code, property owners are encouraged to seek professional advice. Whether you’re dealing with real property or even assets like collectibles, understanding the nuances of capital gains tax is crucial.
Remember that every situation is unique and the information provided here is general. Consulting with a tax expert can ensure you understand your tax filing status, applicable income tax brackets and strategies to potentially decrease your tax bill when selling a property.